• Official Journal of the European UnionCOMMISSION REGULATION (EU) 2017/893 of 24 May 2017 amending Annexes I and IV to Regulation (EC) No 999/2001 of the European Parliament and of the Council and Annexes X, XIV and XV to Commission Regulation (EU) No 142/2011 as regards the provisions on processed animal protein.



  • Insects as Livestock Feed
    by Eike Behre, Bas Heukels, Andrea Merino Mayayo, Xanthe Verschuur (Students from Wageningen University and Research (WUR) in The Netherlands) via Sustainable Development UN Knowledge Platform


Dung Beetle

“Dung beetles are beetles that feed partly or exclusively on dung. A dung beetle can bury dung 250 times heavier than itself in one night.
Many dung beetles, known as rollers, roll dung into round balls, which are used as a food source or breeding chambers.” Keep wiki reading.


Dung beetle

(Scarabaeidae: Onitis spp.,Copris spp.,Heliocopris spp.)
Lao name: Chud Chii


General description
“Dung beetles belong to the Order Coleoptera which constitutes one of the main groups of insects. Dung beetles and their larvae are coprophagous…” keep reading in pag 11.


The dance of the dung beetle

by Marcus Byrne





  • SARAH A. BEYNON, WARWICK A. WAINWRIGHT and MICHAEL CHRISTIE Dr Beynon’s Bug Farm, St Davids, Pembrokeshire,U.K. and The School of Management and Business, Institute of Management, Business and Information Science, Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth, U.K.


  • Poo-poo Platter by Andrew Zimmern
    A dung beetle walks into a bar. “Pardon me,” he says to the bartender. “Is this stool taken?”



Musca domestica Linnaeus

AKA House Fly


“Thought it will be impossible to feel empathy for the fly, its larvae can and it will serve us well” – Ana


Biology: There are four distinct stages in the life of a fly: egg, larva or maggot, pupa and adult. Depending on the temperature, it takes from 6 to 42 days for the egg to develop into the adult fly. The length of life is usually 2–3 weeks but in cooler conditions it may be as long as three months…… ”

“……..Eggs are usually laid in masses on organic material such as manure and garbage. Hatching occurs within a few hours. The young larvae burrow into the breeding material;….”

“Food : Both male and female flies feed on all kinds of human food, garbage and excreta, including sweat, and on animal dung. Under natural conditions flies seek a wide variety of food substances. Because of the structure…” More here !



Sustainable production of housefly (Musca domestica) larvae as a protein-rich feed ingredient by utilizing cattle manure

The common housefly, Musca domestica, is a considerable component of nutrient recycling in the environment. Use of housefly larvae to biodegrade manure presents an opportunity to reduce waste disposal while the rapidly assimilated insect biomass can also be used as a protein rich animal feed. In this study, we…”


“What’s good for humans can’t be bad for animals”.

This is why the Chinese are breeding insects to produce animal feed. Nutrition experts from the European research project PROteINSECT are now investigating how this protein-rich feed could also be used by farmers in Europe.



Use of fly larvae (Musca domestica) in feed for Macrobrachium sp.

In the present study, the potential of fly larvae meal as a protein source for incorporation in a diet used in culture animals of the genus Macrobrachium is evaluated. Two experimental feeds were formulated based on meal larvae, with differences in protein content (25 and 35%); they were provided to individuals of the genus and compared opposite with two commercial…


Insects as animal feed


Keep learning !!!!


Hangzhou Tianyuan Agriculture Company rearing fly larvae in pig manure

by Paul Vantomme

From animal WASTE to RESOURCES: Hangzhou Tianyuan Agriculture Company rearing fly larvae on pig manure to produce chicken feed protein. Summary video showing Prof. ZhiJian Zhang, PhD from the Zhejiang University, HangZhou, China.



Tenebrio Molitor

AKA Mealworm


PLEASE !! is not “Eww! a worm” but,  The larvae of a flour Beetle!!  😉 a real star – Ana


Common names

Yellow mealworm; gusano de la harina [Spanish]; ver de farine, ténébrion meunier [French]; bicho-da-farinha [Portuguese]; meelworm [Dutch]; Mehlwürmer [German]


Mealworms “are the larval form of the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor, a species of darkling beetle. Like all holometabolic insects, they go through four life stages: egg, larva, pupa, and adult. Larvae typically measure about 2.5 cm or more, whereas adults are generally between 1.25 and 1.8 cm in length.”

In waste disposal
“In 2015, it was discovered that mealworms are capable of degrading polystyrene into usable organic matter at a rate of about 34-39 milligrams per day. Additionally, no difference was found between mealworms fed only styrofoam and mealworms fed conventional foods, during the one-month… be curious keep learning !!



  • Effect of blanching followed by refrigerated storage or industrial microwave drying on the microbial load of yellow mealworm larvae (Tenebrio molitor)Abstract
    Yellow mealworm larvae (Tenebrio molitor) are being introduced into Western food products. The effect of blanching, followed by either chilled storage or industrial microwave drying, on microbial counts of the larvae was investigated. Whatever time applied (10, 20 or 40 s), considerable log reductions were obtained after blanching (total viable count, Enterobacteriaceae, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and molds and psychrotrophs), except for aerobic endospores. No major growth was observed during subsequent chilled storage for 6 days.




Hermetia Illucens

or Black Soldier Fly Larvae (BSFL)


“Personally …. My favourite Hero” !!!  – Ana

Hermetia illucens, the black soldier fly, “is a common and widespread fly of the family Stratiomyidae. The larvae and adults are considered neither pests nor vectors. Instead, black soldier fly larvae play a similar role to that of redworms as essential decomposers in breaking down organic substrates and returning nutrients to the soil.

Black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) are an excellent source of sustainable protein for aqua culture, animal feed, and pet and human nutrition. The larvae have voracious appetites and can be used for composting household food scraps and agricultural waste products.” Keep learning

Number of households that own a pet






Freshwater Fish




Percentage of households that own a pet





Biowaste Processing with Black Soldier Fly Larvae

Feeding 10 Billion

Based on the observation, Dr. Taylor did some analyses of the insects, and determined that they were actually quite efficient at turning food waste into biomass. PLEASE CHECK THIS GREAT PRESENTATION from page 49 to 54 Credit: Philip Taylor, Duke University.



Environmental impact of food waste bioconversion by insects: Application of Life Cycle Assessment to process using Hermetia illucens


  • Food waste bioconversion by insects is assessed using Life Cycle Assessment.
  • Hermetia illucens (an insect of the Diptera order) is considered.
  • Three different functional units were used to carry out the analysis.
  • Comparisons were made with conventional production of protein and lipids.
  • A sensitivity analysis evaluates the effects of varying significant factors.



Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens and effects on its life cycle

In developing countries, effective waste management strategies are constrained by high collection costs and lack of adequate treatment and disposal options. The organic fraction in particular, which accounts for more than 50% of the waste production, constitutes a great, yet

Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens and effects on its life cycle (PDF Download Available).


Learn from the best



Wide variety of omnivorous zoo animals and birds + insectivores and other species with similar feeding habits and nutritional requirements.



  • The Piscivore’s Dilemma
    By: Tim Zimmermann
    “The oceans are in serious trouble, creating a tough question for consumers: Should I eat wild fish, farmed fish, or no fish at all? The author, a longtime student of marine environments, dove into an amazing new world of ethical harvesters, renegade farmers, and problem-solving scientists. The result: your guide to sustainably enjoying nature’s finest source of protein.”
    “To see them idling in concrete raceways instead of chasing an insect hatch is a reminder that farmed life is a faint facsimile of life in the wild. But I will maintain my exemption for mussels, which in my opinion are an ethically defensible animal protein. “




Ento Podcast

How maggots can save the world and make this man millions -Featuring AgriProtein
Commentary by: Jason Drew, Co-Founder of AgriProtein


Are you working on a business plan? do you need to find some numbers about animal population in zoos? Here are some !!

















  • PAPs, nitrites, insect feed and mycotoxins: Commission reveals feed legislation roadmap
    by Jane Byrne for FEED Navigator
    “What is the EU regulatory timeline looking like around the use of processed animal protein (PAP) in poultry and pig feed? We reveal that and more after catching up with key policymakers in Brussels.




  • Regulation of Pet Food in Europe
    Pet Food Safety
    Two laws set out the basic principles for food and feed safety:

    • the ‘general food law’ (Regulation N° 178/2002)[1] and
    • the ‘feed hygiene regulation’ (Regulation N° 183/2005).

Regulations N° 1069/2009 and 999/200 are more specific and provide strict rules to ensure that all animal products used in animal feed and human food are safe. Regulation N° 1831/2003 regulates the additives used in animal feed. This means that all additives have to be evaluated on their safety before being used in animal feed. All approved additives are listed in the Register published by the EU Commission. Keep reading at Wikivet


In this post I am going to show you some of the top companies that are producing insect feed for mono-gastric farmed animals and some other interesting purposes.

The road to insect based products are being paved by some very creative and innovative companies. Many of which are already selling products that are available to both consumers and industrial customers right now.

A few weeks ago we covered some of the insect food products you can buy at supermarkets or online right now. However this time I wanted to take a look at the other side of the coin –  feed companies using insects.

There are so many out there popping up all the time, so this list is not intended to be comprehensive. Let us know if there are companies you think should be on this list.

These are instead the companies that have popped up on my radar over the last year or so. Companies that are mostly using similar broad technologies and techniques to create industrial scale insect based feed and other products.

What Insects Are They Using, and Why?

Unlike the large range of insects that we see being used in consumer food products, feed companies are mainly using the larvae of the Black Solider Fly.

Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens)

Why is the black soldier fly so popular, you might ask?

It seems that the black soldier fly is a very good option when it comes to industrial scale production of feed. In fact, the feedipedia states a whole range of benefits which perhaps explain why it is used so much:

  • Dense populations of Black soldier fly larvae can convert large volumes of organic waste into valuable biomass
  • Black soldier fly larvae are voracious and process organic waste very quickly, restraining bacterial growth and thereby reducing production of bad odour to a minimum
  • Adult flies are not attracted to human habitats or foods and not considered a nuisance
  • Black soldier fly larvae are a high-value feed source, rich in protein and fat

So these very useful insects can produce masses of handy proteins and fats that can be repurposed by feed companies. And the side effects of the flies are minimal to none. On top of this, they are great at processing wastes (like foods) that we otherwise have to place somewhere to simply rot.

Other Flies Being Used

Agriprotein in particular is also using a couple of other flies to process various kinds of waste.

As well as the black soldier fly, they use both the common housefly (Musca domestica) and the blowfly (Calliphoridae family). These flies are great for processing abattoir waste,  whereas the black soldier fly is far better at processing manure and vegetable matter.

Other Alternatives

I will not go into specifics in this post but there are other insects that could be used to produce feed and the FAO has some further information on this if you are interested (see section 7.3).

Environmental Alternative

Bio-waste processing is a fantastic alternative for producing animal and fish feed. Normally such processes are resource intensive and and wasteful too. So the insect alternatives are something that is fast opening people’s eyes.

And with the increasing demand for products like fish, this issue is becoming more important. Especially as the oceans are already becoming overfished.

A World Bank report stated that by 2030 two thirds of the world’s seafood will instead be farm-raised. The question then is: where will all of the fish food come from? Currently millions of tons of wild fish (anchovies, sardines etc) are being used to raise farmed fish like salmon. However, such feed options are just not sustainable. It can take up to:

 three pounds of wild fish to grow one pound of farmed fish

So instead of wasting our precious wild fish resources to make protein for farmed fish, it makes a lot more sense to use less resource intensive products like those from insect larvae, right?

[Tweet “Why not use insects to make fishmeal, instead of using our precious wild fish #feed”]

The other option has always been soy-based proteins, which consume 95% of the soy production right now. And although this is somewhat better than using fish to feed fish, it is still quite resource intensive. Especially when you compare it to insect larvae products which actually consume waste products instead of valuable farming resources.

The Companies

Now you know what these companies are doing, and how they are doing it (more or less, I will let them explain the details of their own processes), let’s take a look at some of the most outstanding ones around.


Company Website: http://www.enviroflight.net/

Twitter: https://twitter.com/enviroflight

What do they do?

The Enviroflight team are using the Black Soldier Fly larvae to process waste products (food, brewery waste etc) and turn them into useful food and plant nutrients. They are working on insect meal animal feed as well as plant fertilizers all as products of their Black Soldier Fly based systems.

Further Reading:


Agri Protein

Company Website: http://www.agriprotein.com/

Facebook Page: https://www.facebook.com/Agriprotein

What do they do?

Agri Protein produces two products (a natural protein meal and oil) which can be used as a growth facilitator in agricultural feed preparations.  Some of the by product of their larvae can also be used and sold as a soil. And they also sell the dried larvae directly as by the pet food industry.

Further Reading:



Company Website: http://www.ynsect.com

Facebook Page: https://www.facebook.com/pages/Ynsect/122147991212360

What do they do?

Ynsect are still in the development phase, but they are working with both flies and beetles using similar bio waste processing techniques to most of the companies on this page. They will then use the by-products of this process to develop a variety of products including animal and pet feed, plant nutrition and more.

Further Reading:



Company Website: http://www.protix.eu

What Do They Do?

Protix have developed a broad range of insect derived products ranging from:

  • Insect protein meal (high percentage)
  • Purified Insect oils and lipids
  • Chitin and Chitin derivatives
  • Whole insects
  • Insect fertilizer pellets

They also provide some of their knowledge and insect raising technology if you are interested in getting started yourself. You can find more details here.

Enterra Feed

Company Website: http://www.enterrafeed.com/

What Do They Do?

Enterra grows sustainable animal feed ingredients and a natural organic fertilizer for food production – Trademarked Renewable Food for Animals and Plants™

What does that actually mean? Well, they source waste foods from grocery stores and food suppliers, such as

  • Fruits and vegetables
  • Bread, bakery goods, and grains
  • Fish and seafood

This waste food is then fed to insect larvae (from the black solider fly) that consume this material. The mature insects are then harvested and turned into nutritious protein and oils that can be used as a replacement for wild fish and soy alternatives, that are far more costly and resource intensive.

They sell a range of products from animal food to oils for animal foods (that replace the standard omega oil sources).

Another bonus of their harvesting process is a fertilizer that is nutritional rich and a great alternative to the standard chemicals that are used.

Additonal Reading:

Enterra Feed Secures $5 Million From U.K.’s Wheatsheaf Investments


Company Website: http://www.bioflytech.com/

Facebook Page: https://www.facebook.com/pages/Bioflytech/119964818176253

What do they do?

BioFlyTech are a spin off of the University of Alicante in Spain. They have four separate divisions, focused on the use of flies (various species of dipterans) as alternatives to current feed, pollination and other technologies.

Their feed division uses the flies as raw material for animal feed. The insects are processed to create flour, and also raw ingredients such as proteins and fatty acids. The idea is to use these various products in pet food and feeds for aquaculture, aviculture and animal production.


Company Page: http://entomotech.es

Facebook Page: https://www.facebook.com/entomotech

What do they do?

Entomotech is not yet in production, but they are research a huge variety of insect applications. Anything from insect feed alternatives to medicine, they are looking into it.

There current projects list includes:

  • Nutrition in aquaculture 
  • Alternative Protein Sources
  • New Biological Pest Control Systems

Additional Reading



Company Page: http://www.co-prot.com

What do they do?

Co-Prot are focused on the South-East Asian markets supplying animal feed and related products. They work with the Black Solider Fly, their Lavea and it’s derivatives. They have a few products you can buy including:

  • Black Soldier Fly Larva Meal (varying protein/fat ranges)
  • Black Soldier Fly Eggs
  • Insect Lipids
  • Services related to the above

Final Thoughts

The insect based feed industry is just starting to take shape and things are changing at a rapid pace. There are many more companies out there still in the R&D phase and they will certainly have a lot to teach us in the years to come.

I hope you are as excited as I am about the future of insects in feed production and look forward to hearing your thoughts on social media!